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Veterinary oral diagnostic imaging
Veterinary oral diagnostic imaging
1° ed., 422 pagg., 250 ill., John Wiley & Sons, febbraio 2024
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Complete reference on using diagnostic imaging in veterinary dentistry and interpreting diagnostic images in dogs, cats, exotic pets, zoological animals, and horses
Veterinary Oral Diagnostic Imaging offers veterinary clinicians a complete guide to using diagnostic imaging for common dentistry and oral surgery procedures in a veterinary practice. It provides guidance on positioning, techniques, and interpreting diagnostic images in the oral cavity, with more than 600 high-quality dental diagnostic images showing both normal anatomy and pathology for comparison. Focusing on dental radiography in dogs, cats, exotic pets, zoological animals, and horses, the book also includes advanced modalities such as MRI, CT, and cone beam CT.
Veterinary Oral Diagnostic Imaging covers:
  • History, physiology, and indications for diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity, with information on the history of diagnostic imaging and radiographic image creation
  • Digital dental radiographic positioning and image labeling, covering the parallel technique, bisecting angle, radiographic positioning errors, and labial mounting
  • Interpretation of anatomy, covering normal radiographic anatomy, dentition and tooth numbers, deciduous and permanent teeth of canine and feline patients, eruption patterns and common and uncommon radiographic pathology observed in these animals
  • Standard imaging, radiographic anatomy, and interpretation of equine patients, as well as exotic pocket pets and zoological animals
Focusing on the fundamentals of dental radiographic imaging, interpretation, and applications to the oral cavity, Veterinary Oral Diagnostic Imaging is an essential resource for any veterinarian providing dental services as part of their practice, along with veterinary students and interns.

List of Contributors
Chapter 1 History, Physiology, Modality Options, and Safety for Diagnostic Imaging of the Oral Cavity
History of Diagnostic Imaging
Discovery of X-rays
                Developing of Safety Measures
                Shortening of Exposure Time
                Glass Plates to Film
                Progression to Digital
Philosophy of Diagnostic Imaging
                                Choosing the Appropriate Modality
                                Ability to Interpret Findings
Radiographic Indications
                                Documentation of Disease
                                Value of Full Mouth Radiography
                                American Animal Hospital Association Guidelines Regarding Dental Radiography
Intraoral Dental Radiographic Equipment
                                                Wall Mount units
                                                Handheld Units
                                                Mobile Units/Castor Mounted Units
                                                Standard Film
                                                Digital Image Acquisition
Computed Radiography (CR) Photostimulable Phosphor (PSP) Plates (Indirect Plates)
                                                                Digital Radiography Image Sensors (Direct Plates)
                                                                Similarities of Indirect and Direct Plates
Radiographic Imaging
                                Basic Unit of an X-ray
                                Milliamperes (mA), Kilovoltage peak (kVp), and Exposure Time
Radiographic Densities
Digital Image Creation
                                Creation of a Digital Image
                                Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Format (DICOM)
Advanced Imaging Modalities
                                Computed Tomography
                                Cone Beam Tomography (CBCT)
                                Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Definitions Related to Imaging Modalities
                                Sagittal Plane
                                Transverse Plane
                                Dorsal Plane
Computed Tomography Window Width and Window Level
                                Window Width
                                Window Level
Other Common Viewing Windows
                                Bone Window
                                Soft Tissue Window
Radiation Safety
                                Radiation Safety Apparel
                                As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)
                                Time, Distance, and Shielding
Radiation Safety Equipment Inspection
                                Protective apparel
                                Care of Radiation Safety Equipment
                                Radiation Safety Inspection Protocol
Chapter 2 Digital Dental Radiographic Positioning and Image Labeling
Benefits of Proper Positioning
                                Practicing Techniques
Use of Position Indicating Device (PID)
Positioning Techniques
Patient Positioning
                Sternal Recumbency
                Lateral Recumbency
                Dorsal Recumbency
Sensor/Plate/Film Placement
                Basic Positioning of Sensor
Eliminating Unused Film Space
                Visualization of the Crown and Space Apical to the Root
Intra Oral Parallel Technique
                Ideal Radiographic Technique
                Placement of Sensor for Parallel Technique
Size Matters
                Alternative Positioning
                Parallel Technique for Cats
Intra Oral Bisecting Angle Technique
                Plane of the Tooth, Film, and the Angel that Bisects
                Shadow Game: Elongation, Foreshortening, and the Bisecting Angle
                Axis of the Sensor, the Tooth and the PID
                Positioning of the Patient Matters
Anatomical Variations
Uses of the Bisecting Angle Technique
Occlusal Technique
                Localize Tooth Roots
                PID Perpendicular to the Target Area and Sensor
Extra Oral Technique
                Maxillary Premolars and Molar in Felines
                Eliminate Superimposition of Zygomatic Arch
                Extraoral Labeling
“Almost Parallel” or “Near Parallel”
                Maxillary Premolars and Molar in Cats
                Decrease Superimposition of Zygomatic Arch
Localization of Palatal Roots
                Clark’s Rule or “SLOB” Same Lingual Opposite Buccal
                Separation of Mesiobuccal and Mesiopalatal Roots
Techniques for Small Patients and Caudal Teeth
                Combination of Techniques
                Radiographing from a Mesial or Distal Projection
Technique Errors
                Underrepresentation of Disease
                Overrepresentation of Disease
Correction of Error
                Position Bean Perpendicular to Bisecting Angle
Cone Cutting
                Circular artifact
                Reposition the PID
                Reposition the Sensor
                Increase the distance of the PID from the Sensor
Missing the Apex
                2-4 mm of Hard or Soft Tissue Apical to Root
                Reposition the Sensor
                Reposition the PID
                Flip Orientation of Sensor
Over and Under Exposed
                Control of kVp, mA, or mAs
                                Increase kVp or mAs
                                Decrease kVp or mAs
Radiographic Artifacts
                Direct Artifacts
                                Chemically Developed Radiographs
                                Contamination of Sensor
                                Damage to Sensor
                                Age of Equipment
                Indirect Artifacts
                                Endotracheal Tubes
                                Pumice/Prophy Paste
                                Positioning Devices
Repeated Radiographs
                Improper Positioning of PID
                Improper Generator Settings
                Improper Film Placement
                                Too Far out of the Oral Cavity
                                Too Far into the Oral Cavity
                                Sensor Placed Backwards
Chapter 3 Interpretation of Normal Radiographic Anatomy
                Value of Intraoral Radiographic Imaging
                                Value of Radiographs in Dogs
                                Value of Radiographs in Cats
                Quality of images
                                Exposure Artifacts
                                Positioning Techniques
                                Positioning Artifacts
                Mounting of Standard Dental Radiographs
                                Types of Mounting
                                                Labial Mounting
                                                Lingual Mounting
                                                Labial Mounting of Standard Dental Radiographic Film
                                                Lingual Mounting of Standard Film
                                                Digital Radiographic Mounting
                                Labial Mounting- Positioning of Teeth
                                                Determining Maxilla from Mandible
                                                Determining Right from Left
                                                Viewing of Maxillary and Mandibular Canines, Premolars and Molars
                                                Viewing of Maxillary and Mandibular Incisors
                Modified Triadan Numbering System
                Deciduous vs Permanent Teeth
                Eruption Patterns
                Mixed Dentition
                Interpretation of Images
                                Tooth Root Numbers
                                                Maxillary Teeth
                                                Mandibular Teeth
                                Evaluation of the Structures
                                                                Root Formation
                                                                                Abnormalities associated with Cementum
                                                                Periodontal Ligament
                                                                Missing or Supernumerary Teeth
                                                                Supernumerary Roots   
                                                                Reduced Number of Roots and Root Malformations
                                                                                Developmental Root Abnormalities
                                                                                                Dilacerated Tooth Roots
                                                                Bone Loss
                                                                                Horizontal Bone Loss
                                                                                Vertical Bone Loss
                                                                                Furcation Bone Loss
                Interpretation of Radiographic Shadows
                Diagrams of Normal Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat
Chapter 4 Interpretation of Common Oral Pathology in the Canine Patient
                Periodontal Disease
Stages of Periodontal Disease
Types of Bone Loss
                Horizontal Bone Loss
                Vertical Bone Loss
                Furcation Bone Loss
Supernumerary Roots and Teeth
Canine Tooth Resorption
Types of Tooth Resorption
                External Surface Resorption
                External Replacement Resorption
                External Inflammatory Resorption
                External Cervical Root Surface Resorption
Treatment of Tooth Resorption
Odontogenic Cysts
                Dentigerous Cysts
Tooth Fractures
                Root fractures
Retained Tooth Roots
Endodontic Disease
                Radiographic Signs of Endodontic Disease
                                Widened Periodontal Ligament Space
                                Loss of Lamina Dura
                                Periapical Lucency
                                External and Internal Root Resorption
                                Widened Pulp Canal
                                Pulp Canal Calcification
                Apical Periodontitis
                                Acute Apical Abscess
                Endodontic Therapy
Attrition and Abrasion
Eruption Abnormalities
                Persistent Deciduous Teeth
                Abnormal Eruption
Chapter 5 Interpretation of Common Oral Pathology in the Feline Patient
Periodontal Disease
Stages of Periodontal Disease
Types of Bone Loss
Horizontal Bone Loss
Vertical Bone Loss
Furcation Bone Loss
Buccal Alveolar Expansile Osteitis
Tooth Resorption
                Stages of Tooth Resorption
                Types of Tooth Resorption
                Criteria for Performing Crown Amputation/Intentional Root Retention
Osteomyelitis and Osteitis
Retained Tooth Roots
Endodontic Disease
Chapter 6 Oral Surgery: Neoplasia and Cystic Conditions
            Radiographic indications of neoplasia (benign and malignant)
                                    Benign oral tumors
                                    Canine Acanthomatous Ameloblastoma (CAA)
                                    Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma (POF)
                                    Feline Inductive Odontogenic Tumor (FIOT)
                        Malignant oral tumors
                                    Nontonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
                                    Papillary Squamous Cell Carcinoma (PSCC)
                                    Oral Malignant Melanoma (MM)
                                    Fibrosarcoma (FSA)
                                    Osteosarcoma (OSA)
                                    Multilobular Osteochondrosarcoma (MLO)
            Radiographic indications of cystic conditions
                        Dentigerous Cyst
                        Radicular Cyst
                        Canine Furcation Cyst
                        Surgical Ciliated Cyst
                        Lateral Periodontal Cyst
                        Odontogenic Keratocyst/Canine Odontogenic Parakeratinized Cyst
            Compound and complex odontomas
            Limitations of dental radiography for neoplasia
Chapter 7 Interpretation of Unique Pathology in the Canine and Feline Patient
Unique conditions with predilection for canine patients
Craniomandibular Osteopathy (CMO)
Idiopathic Calvarial Hyperostosis
Periostitis Ossificans (PO)
Malformed Roots/Root Hypoplasia
Dens invaginatus/Dens in Dente
Unique conditions observed in both canine and feline patients
Masticatory Myositis
Pulp Stones and Denticles
Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
                                Enamel Pearls
Unique conditions with predilection for feline patients
                                Dentition Abnormalities
Fused Roots
Supernumerary Roots
Supernumerary Teeth
Abnormal Eruption
Unerupted Teeth
Patellar Fracture and Dental Anomaly Syndrome (PADS) or Knees and Teeth Syndrome
Chapter 8 Diagnostic Imaging of Exotic Pet Mammals and Zoo Animals
Dental Diagnostic Imaging for Non-Traditional (Exotic) Animals
General considerations for Exotic Companion Mammals
                Knowledge of normal anatomy
General Positioning and Projection Recommendations
                Standard Radiography
                                Standard Radiographic Positions
                                                Lateral and dorsoventral
                                                Oblique Views
                                Intraoral radiographs
                                Intraoral films used extraorally
                                Magnification techniques
                Anatomical variations
Guinea Pigs and Chinchillas
Rats, Mice, Hamsters, Gerbils and other commonly kept rodent pets
African Pygmy Hedgehogs
Sugar Gliders
Prairie dogs
Captive Non-domestic or “Wild” Mammals
                Small Zoologic species
Non-human Primates
                Radiographic Positioning and Techniques in Captive Animals
                                Animal Training
                Dental Conditions in Zoologic Animals
                                Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (MPPD)
                                Molar Progression
                Advanced Diagnostic Imaging in Exotic Pet Mammals and Zoo Animals
                                Standard Computed Tomography
                                Cone Beam Computed Tomography
                                Micro-Computed Tomography
                                Considerations for Computed Tomography
Chapter 9 Diagnostic Imaging and Interpretation of the Equine Patient
Introduction to Equine Dental Radiographs
Radiation Safety
Radiographic Systems
                        Direct Digital Radiographic System
                        Computed Tomography
                        Standard Radiographic System
Radiographic Technique
Guidelines for Radiographic Views 
Concepts to Understand
            Directing the Primary Beam Through the Interproximal Spaces
            Open Mouth Oblique Cheek Teeth Projections
Radiographic Views
                        Lateral View
                        Dorsoventral View
                        Dorsal Ventral Oblique Projection of the axillary cheek teeth
                        Ventral Dorsal Oblique Projection of maxillary cheek teeth
                        Ventral Dorsal Oblique Projection of the mandibular cheek teeth
                        Dorsal Ventral Oblique Projection of the mandibular cheek teeth
                        Occlusal Intraoral View of the maxillary incisors and canines
Occlusal Intraoral View of the mandibular incisors and canines
Evaluation of an Image
Labial mounting
Radiographic anatomy
Radiographic changes in dental disease
Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH)
Apical infections
Periodontal disease
   Other Common abnormalities
Chapter 10 Advanced Imaging of the Veterinary Patient
Introduction to the use of advanced imaging techniques in the maxillofacial region
                Choosing Advanced Imaging
                Determining Between MRI or CT
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
                                Technical principles of MRI
                                T1 and T2 Weighted Sequences
                                Other MRI Sequences
                Indications for use of MRI over CT in the maxillofacial region
                                Temporomandibular joint disease
                                Salivary gland disease
Abnormalities in the muscles of mastication and inability to open/close mouth
                Conclusions on the clinical indication for use of MRI
                Computed Tomography (CT)
                                Technical principles of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT)
Technical principles of Cone Beam CT (CBCT)
Viewing CT images
Differences in imaging characteristics between CBCT and MDCT
                Spatial resolution
                Soft tissue imaging
Other impactful differences in practical use between MDCT and CBCT
Indications for use of either MDCT or CBCT in the maxillofacial region
                Maxillofacial trauma 
                Bony pathology
                                Fibro-osseous disease
                                Osseous neoplasia
Indications for MDCT only (not CBCT) in the maxillofacial region
                Oral neoplasia with a soft tissue component
                Soft tissue pathology
Indications for CBCT only (not MDCT) in the maxillofacial region
                Dentoalveolar trauma
                Periodontal disease
                Endodontic disease
                Tooth resorption
                Diagnosis and treatment of missing teeth 
Conclusions on the clinical indication for use of CBCT versus MDCT

Brenda L. Mulherin, DVM, Diplomate AVDC, is a Clinical Professor with the Lloyd Veterinary Medical Center at Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine in Ames, Iowa, USA.

Codice Articolo: ODONT51
ISBN: 9781119780502
Peso: 1600 g
Area: Tutte le specie
Disciplina: Odontoiatria/Odontostomatologia
IVA: Esente IVA