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Clinical guide to fish medicine
HADFIELD-CLAYTON
Clinical guide to fish medicine
1° ed., 608 pagg., 250 ill., John Wiley & Sons, Settembre 2021

Codice Articolo: ANESO299
ISBN: 9781119259558
Peso: 1700 g
Area: Animali esotici
Disciplina: Medicina interna
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Caratteristiche
Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine
Designed as a practical resource, Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine provides an evidence-based approach to the veterinary care of fish. This guide—written and edited by experts in the field—contains essential information on husbandry, diagnostics, and case management of bony and cartilaginous fish.
This important resource:
  • Provides clinically relevant information on topics such as anatomy, water quality, life-support systems, nutrition, behavioral training, clinical examination, clinical pathology, diagnostic imaging, necropsy techniques, anesthesia and analgesia, surgery, medical treatment, and transport
  • Describes common presenting problems of fish, including possible differentials and practical approaches
  • Reviews key information on non-infectious and infectious diseases of fish in a concise format that is easily accessible in a clinical setting
Written for veterinarians, biologists, technicians, specialists, and students, Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine offers a comprehensive review of veterinary medicine of fish.
Contenuti
Preface and Acknowledgments
List of Contributors
SECTION A
- Chapter A1 – Anatomy and Taxonomy
o A1.1 Introduction
o A1.2 Anatomy of Bony Fish
A1.2.1 Body Plan
A1.2.2 Integument
A1.2.3 Musculoskeletal System
A1.2.4 Buoyancy Organs
A1.2.5 Adipose Tissue
A1.2.6 Ocular Anatomy
A1.2.7 Auditory Anatomy
A1.2.8 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy
A1.2.9 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity
A1.2.10 Gastrointestinal System
A1.2.11 Liver and Gallbladder
A1.2.12 Respiratory System
A1.2.13 Cardiovascular System
A1.2.14 Lymphomyeloid System
A1.2.15 Endocrine System
A1.2.16 Urogenital System
A1.2.17 Neurologic System
o A1.3 Anatomy of Cartilaginous Fish
A1.3.1 Body Plan
A1.3.2 Integument
A1.3.3 Musculoskeletal System
A1.3.4 Buoyancy Organs
A1.3.5 Ocular Anatomy
A1.3.6 Auditory Anatomy
A1.3.7 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy
A1.3.8 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity
A1.3.9 Gastrointestinal System
A1.3.10 Liver and Gallbladder
A1.3.11 Respiratory System
A1.3.12 Cardiovascular System
A1.3.13 Hematopoietic and Immunologic System
A1.3.14 Endocrine System
A1.3.15 Urogenital System
A1.3.16 Neurologic System
o A1.4 Taxonomy
A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Bony Fish (Osteichthyes)
A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Cartilaginous Fish (Chondrichthyes)
- Chapter A2: Water Quality
o A2.1 Introduction
o A2.2 Water Source
o A2.3 Dissolved Oxygen
o A2.4 Total Gas Pressures
o A2.5 Temperature
o A2.6 Salinity and Salt Composition
o A2.7 Nitrogenous Wastes (Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate)
o A2.8 pH
o A2.9 Alkalinity and Hardness
o A2.10 Carbon Dioxide
o A2.11 Chlorines and Chloramines
o A2.12 Iodide and Iodate
o A2.13 Heavy Metals
o A2.14 Turbidity/Suspended Solids 
o A2.15 Microbiome and Bacterial Testing
o A2.16 Water Quality Testing Options
o A2.17 Conclusion
- Chapter A3: Life Support Systems
o A3.1 Introduction
o A3.2 Bacteria and other Microorganisms
o A3.3 System Type
o A3.4 Oxygenation and Gas Exchange
o A3.5 Water Flow
o A3.6 Mechanical Filtration
A3.6.1 Surface Skimming
A3.6.2 Prefilters
A3.6.3 Sand/Canister/Bead filters
A3.6.4 Settling/Sedimentation Tanks
A3.6.5 Foam Fractionators
A3.6.6 Activated Carbon
A3.6.7 Flocculation
A3.6.8 Mechanical Filtration Trouble-Shooting
o A3.7 Biological Filtration and Nitrification
A3.7.1 Biological Filtration Trouble-Shooting
o A3.8 Denitrification
o A3.9 Ecological Scrubbers
o A3.10 Water Disinfection
A3.10.1 Ultraviolet Light Disinfection
A3.10.2 Ozone Disinfection
o A3.11 Temperature Control
o A3.12 Noise and Vibration
o A3.13 Lighting
o A3.14 Other Life-Support Equipment
o A3.15 Pond Life-Support
o A3.16 Coral Reef Life-Support
o A3.17 Conclusion
- Chapter A4 – Nutrition and Nutritional Support
o A4.1 Introduction
o A4.2 Natural History
A4.2.1 Wild Diet and Foraging Ecology
A4.2.2 Metabolism and Energetics
A4.2.3 Anatomy and Digestion
o A4.3 Nutrient Requirements
A4.3.1 Sources of Energy
A4.3.2 Protein
A4.3.3 Lipid
A4.3.4 Carbohydrates
A4.3.5 Vitamins
A4.3.6 Minerals
A4.3.7 Other Additives
A4.3.8 Nutrient Choice
o A4.4 Feeding
A4.4.1 Diet Selection and Formulation
A4.4.2 Food Types
A4.4.3 Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation
o A4.4.4 Feeding Behavior, Amount, and Frequency
A4.4.5 Body Condition
o A4.5 Food Storage and Preparation
A4.5.1 Food Safety and Monitoring
A4.5.2 Storage
A4.5.3 Food Preparation
A4.5.4 Quality Control
o A4.6 Nutritional Support
A4.6.1 Appetite Stimulants
A4.6.2 Assisted Feeding
o A4.7 Larval and Broodstock Nutrition
o A4.8 New Directions in Fish Nutrition Research
- Chapter A5 – Fish Behavior: Training and Enrichment
o A5.1 Introduction
o A5.2 Fish Abilities
o A5.3 Benefits of Behavioral Management
o A5.4 Introduction to the Science of Learning
o A5.5 Before Training Begins
o A5.6 Getting Started with Training
o A5.7 Basic Training
o A5.8 Beyond Basic Training (Other Reasons to Train)
o A5.9 Modifying Problem Behaviors
o A5.10 Conclusion
- Chapter A6 - Clinical Examination 
o A6.1 Introduction
o A6.2 History
o A6.3 Clinical Examination
A6.3.1 Observation
A6.3.2 Transport Considerations
A6.3.3 Handling Considerations
A6.3.4 Manual Restraint
A6.3.5 Chemical Restraint
A6.3.6 Components of the Physical Examination
o A6.4 Individual Identification
o A6.5 Diagnostic Sampling
A6.5.1 Skin Scrapes
A6.5.2 Gill Biopsies
A6.5.3 Fin Biopsies
A6.5.4 Fecal Collection
A6.5.5 Diagnostic Imaging
A6.5.6 Blood Collection
A6.5.7 Musculoskeletal Impression Smears, Aspirates, or Biopsies
A6.5.8 Coelomic Aspirates or Biopsies
A6.5.9 Periocular and Ocular Aspirates
A6.5.10 Cerebrospinal Fluid Collection
A6.5.11 Egg or Sperm Collection
o A6.6 Commercial Laboratories
- Chapter A7 – Clinical Pathology
o A7.1 Introduction
o A7.2 Reference Materials in Fish Medicine
o A7.3 Wet Mount Examinations
A7.3.1 Skin Scrapes
A7.3.2 Gill Biopsies/Gill Clips
A7.3.3 Fin Biopsies/Fin Clips
A7.3.4 Fecal Wet Mounts
A7.3.5 Tissue Wet Mounts/Squash Preparations
o A7.4 Cytologic Examination
A7.4.1 Factors that Affect the Diagnostic Quality of Stained Cytologies
A7.4.2 Cytologic Sample Evaluation
o A7.5 Histopathology
o A7.6 Hematology
A7.6.1 Hematologic Sample Processing
A7.6.2 Hematologic Sample Evaluation
A7.6.3 Special Stains for Hematology
o A7.7 Blood Biochemistry
A7.7.1 Biochemistry Sample Processing
A7.7.2 Biochemistry Sample Evaluation
o A7.8 Toxicologic and Nutritional Analyses
A7.8.1 Toxicology
A7.8.2 Vitamin and Mineral Analysis
o A7.9 Microbiology
A7.9.1 Bacteriology
A7.9.2 Virology
o A7.10 Molecular Diagnostics
A7.10.1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods
A7.10.2 DNA Sequencing
o A7.11 Immunohistochemistry
o A7.12 In Situ Hybridization
o A7.13 Antibody-Based Testing
A7.13.1 Fluorescent Antibody Testing
A7.13.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs)
o A7.14 Conclusion
- Chapter A8 – Diagnostic Imaging
o A8.1 Introduction
o A8.2 Conventional Radiography
A8.2.1 Radiographic Safety
A8.2.2 Plain Radiography
A8.2.3 Contrast Radiography
A8.2.4 Interventional Radiography
o A8.3 Computed Tomography
o A8.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging
o A8.5 Ultrasonography
o A8.6 Common Abnormalities Identified with Diagnostic Imaging 
A8.6.1 Spinal Pathology
A8.6.2 Swim Bladder Pathology
A8.6.3 Skin and Pouch Pathology in Syngnathids
A8.6.4 Gastrointestinal Pathology
A8.6.5 Hepatic Pathology
A8.6.6 Reproductive Pathology
o A8.7 Conclusion
- Chapter A9 – Necropsy and Ancillary Diagnostics 
o A9.1 Introduction
o A9.2 Specimen Selection
A9.2.1 Euthanasia of Fish
o A9.3 Human Safety
o A9.4 Equipment Needed
o A9.5 Gross Necropsy
A9.5.1 Ancillary Diagnostics
A9.5.2 External Examination
A9.5.3 Gill, Skin, and Fin Wet Mounts
A9.5.4 Necropsy Approach
A9.5.5 Examination In Situ
A9.5.6 Organ Evaluation
A9.5.7 Organ Wet Mounts and Impression Smears
A9.5.8 Sample Storage and Bio-artifacts
A9.5.9 Disposal
o A9.6 Histology
A9.6.1 Fixatives
A9.6.2 Samples
A9.6.3 Shipping
A9.6.4 Processing and Stains
A9.6.5 Histopathologic Interpretation
o A9.7 Conclusion
- Chapter A10 – Anesthesia and Analgesia
o A10.1 Introduction
o A10.2 Anatomical and Physiological Considerations
A10.2.1 Respiratory Systems
A10.2.2 Skin and Muscle
A10.2.3 Temperature and Metabolism
o A10.3 Water Quality Considerations
A10.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature
A10.3.2 pH and Nitrogenous Waste
A10.3.3 Ionic Balance
o A10.4 Anesthetic Techniques and Drugs
A10.4.1 Human Safety
A10.4.2 Preanesthetic Preparation
A10.4.3 Anesthetic Drug Administration and Agents
o A10.5 Monitoring, Support, Recovery, and Resuscitation
A10.5.1 Anesthetic Depth
A10.5.2 Cardiopulmonary Activity
A10.5.3 Water Quality Monitoring
A10.5.4 Recovery
A10.5.5 Resuscitation
o A10.6 Analgesia
o A10.7 Euthanasia
- Chapter A11 - Surgery and Endoscopy
o A11.1 Introduction
o A11.2 General Surgical Principles
A11.2.1 Preparation of the Patient
A11.2.2 Instrumentation and Visualization
A11.2.3 Suture
A11.2.4 Post-operative Management
o A11.3 Surgical Procedures
A11.3.1 External Mass Excision/Biopsy
A11.3.2 Ophthalmic Surgery
A11.3.3 Pseudobranch Ablation
A11.3.4 Coeliotomy
o A11.4 General Endoscopy Principles
A11.4.1 Rigid Endoscopy Instrumentation
A11.4.2 Rigid Endoscope Handling and Use
A11.4.3 Endosurgery
A11.4.4 Flexible Endoscopy
o A11.5 Endoscopic Procedures
A11.5.1 Gill Endoscopy and Stomatoscopy
A11.5.2 Gastroscopy
A11.5.3 Cloacoscopy
A11.5.4 Coelioscopy
A11.5.5 Pneumocystoscopy
A11.5.6 Biopsy Sample Handling
A11.5.7 Endosurgical Procedures
o A11.6 Conclusion
- Chapter A12 – Medical Treatment 
o A12.1 Introduction
o A12.2 Environmental Options
o A12.3 Routes of Administration
A12.3.1 Injectable
A12.3.2 Oral
A12.3.3 Immersion
A12.3.4 Topical
A12.3.5 Other Routes
o A12.4 Commonly Used Medical Treatments
A12.4.1 Antibiotics
A12.4.2 Antiparasitics
A12.4.3 Antifungals
A12.4.4 Antivirals
A12.4.5 Anti-inflammatories
A12.4.6 Hormones
o A12.5 Vaccines
o A12.6 Immune Stimulants
o A12.7 Critical Care
A12.7.1 Resuscitation of a Non-responsive Fish
A12.7.2 Fluid Therapy
o A12.8 Legislation
A12.8.1 International Legislation
A12.8.2 Legislation in the United States
A12.8.3 Legislation in Europe
o A12.9 Conclusion
- Chapter A13 - Environmental Considerations of Immersion Medications
o A13.1 Introduction
o A13.2 Impacts of Water Chemistry on Immersion Medication
o A13.3 Effects of Water Clarification and Disinfection on Immersion Medications
o A13.4 Effects of Immersion Medications on the Biological Filtration
o A13.5 Microbiome Effects
o A13.6 Effects on Target and Non-target Species
o A13.7 Medication Assays
o A13.8 Diving or Swimming in Medicated Water
o A13.9 Disposal of Medicated Water
A13.9.1 Discharge to Municipal Sanitary Sewer
A13.9.2 Discharge to a Natural Body of Water
A13.9.3 Return to the Institution’s Water System
A13.9.4 Biotic or Abiotic Removal or Destruction of the Medication
A13.9.5 Transfer to an Evaporation Pond
o A13.10 Record-keeping
o A13.11 Specific Drug Examples
A13.11.1 Formalin
A13.11.2 Trichlorfon or Metrifonate
A13.11.3 Praziquantel
A13.11.4 Copper Sulfate, Chelated Copper
A13.11.5 Chloroquine
- Chapter A14 - Acquisition and Transport
o A14.1 Introduction
o A14.2 Source and Sustainability
A14.2.1 Cultured or Previously Wild-Caught Fish
A14.2.2 Recently Wild-Caught Fish
o A14.3 General Principles of Acquisition and Transport
o A14.4 Preparation
A14.4.1 Risk Assessment
A14.4.2 Pre-shipment Conditioning
A14.4.3 Mock Transports
A14.4.4 Feeding and Fasting
o A14.5 Catch and Handling Recommendations
A14.5.1 Aquarium or Pond Bony Fish
A14.5.2 Aquarium Cartilaginous Fish
A14.5.3 Free-ranging Bony Fish
A14.5.4 Free-ranging Cartilaginous Fish
o A14.6 Transport Containers
A14.6.1 Shipping Bags
A14.6.2 Rigid Transport Containers
A14.6.3 Additives
A14.6.4 Temperature Control
A14.6.5 Filtration and Monitoring Systems
A14.6.6 Staffing and Medical Intervention
o A14.7 Transport Options
A14.7.1 By Road
A14.7.2 By Air
A14.7.3 By Boat
A14.7.4 By Parcel Carrier
o A14.8 Acclimation on Arrival
o A14.9 Legislation
o A14.10 Conclusion
- Chapter A15 - Quarantine 
o A15.1 Introduction
o A15.2 Critical Components
A15.2.1 Acquisition Planning
A15.2.2 Isolation and Biosecurity
A15.2.3 Environmental Conditions
A15.2.4 Close Monitoring
A15.2.5 Diagnostics and Treatments
A15.2.6 Accurate Records
o A15.3 Risk Assessment Approach
A15.3.1 Example 1: Quarantine of Koi for an Established Koi Pond
A15.3.2 Example 2: Quarantine of Neon Tetras for a New Home Aquarium
A15.3.3 Example 3: Quarantine of a Group of Tropical Marine Teleosts for a Display Aquarium
A15.3.4 Example 4: Quarantine of Pelagic, Ram-ventilating Shark for a Display Aquarium
A15.3.5 Example 5: Quarantine of Tilapia for an Established Tilapia Culture Facility
o A15.4 Training and Enrichment
o A15.5 ‘Failing’ Quarantine
o A15.6 Clearing Quarantine
o A15.7 Reviewing Quarantine Results
SECTION B Presenting Problems
- B1 Acute Mortalities in a Group
- B2 Respiratory or Cardiovascular Signs
o B2.1 Dyspnea and Tachypnea
o B2.2 Gill Pallor
- B3 Cutaneous Signs
o B3.1 Red/Erosive Skin Lesions
o B3.2 White Skin Lesions
o B3.3 Dark Skin Lesions
o B3.4 Pruritus
- B4 Gastrointestinal or Coelomic Signs
o B4.1 Inappetence, Weight Loss
o B4.2 Coelomic Distension
o B4.3 Dental Disease
o B4.4 Cloacal/Anal Distension or Prolapse
- B5 Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Signs
o B5.1 Spinal Deformity
o B5.2 External Masses
o B5.3 Circling or Spiraling
o B5.4 Positive Buoyancy
o B5.5 Negative Buoyancy
- B6 Ocular Signs
o B6.1 Exophthalmos or Buphthalmos
o B6.2 Ocular Opacity
SECTION C
- C1 Non-Infectious Diseases (Environmental)
o C1.1 Low Dissolved Oxygen
o C1.2 Gas Supersaturation
o C1.3 Barotrauma
o C1.4 Temperature Stress
o C1.5 pH Stress
o C1.6 Ammonia Toxicity
o C1.7 Nitrite Toxicity
o C1.8 Nitrate Toxicity
o C1.9 Chlorine and Chloramine Toxicity
o C1.10 Heavy Metal Toxicity
o C1.11 Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity
o C1.12 Organophosphate and Carbamate Toxicity
- C2 Non-Infectious Diseases (Other)
o C2.1 Physical Trauma
o C2.2 Electrical Trauma
o C2.3 Exertional Myopathy
o C2.4 Lateral Line Depigmentation 
o C2.5 Thyroid Hyperplasia (Goiter)
o C2.6 Mucometra and Ovarian Cysts
o C2.7 Egg Retention or Egg Binding
o C2.8 Dystocia
o C2.9 Cataracts
o C2.10 Lipid Keratopathy (Corneal Lipidosis)
o C2.11 Obesity
o C2.12 Micronutrient Deficiency
o C2.13 Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies
o C2.14 Neoplasia
- C3 Viral Diseases
o C3.1 Viral Diseases (General)
o C3.2 Cyprinid Herpesviruses
o C3.3 Ictalurid Herpesviruses
o C3.4 Rhabdoviruses
o C3.5 Birnaviruses
o C3.6 Pox Viruses
o C3.7 Lymphocystiviruses
o C3.8 Ranaviruses
o C3.9 Megalocytiviruses
o C3.10 Orthomyxoviruses
o C3.11 Betanodaviruses
- C4 Bacterial Diseases
o C4.1 Bacterial Diseases (General)
o C4.2 Aeromonas salmonicida
o C4.3 Motile Aeromonad Septicemia
o C4.4 Vibriosis
o C4.5 Enteric Septicemia of Catfish
o C4.6 Edwardsiellosis
o C4.7 Columnaris and Flexibacteriosis
o C4.8 Flavobacterium psychrophilum
o C4.9 Yersiniosis
o C4.10 Streptococcosis
o C4.11 Renibacterium salmoninarum
o C4.12 Mycobacteriosis
o C4.13 Nocardiosis
o C4.14 Epitheliocystis
o C4.15 Francisellosis
o C4.16 Piscirickettsiosis
- C5 Fungal and Fungal-Like Diseases
o C5.1 Oomycota (Saprolegniasis)
o C5.2 Exophiala spp.
o C5.3 Fusarium spp.
o C5.4 Microsporidia
o C5.5 Mesomycetozoa (DRIPs)
- C6 Protozoal Diseases
o C6.1 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
o C6.2 Cryptocaryon irritans
o C6.3 Chilodonella spp.
o C6.4 Brooklynella spp.
o C6.5 Scuticociliates
o C6.6 Trichodinids
o C6.7 Sessile Ciliates
o C6.8 Cryptobia spp.
o C6.9 Ichthyobodo spp.
o C6.10 Spironucleus and Hexamita spp.
o C6.11 Amyloodinium and Piscinoodinium spp.
o C6.12 Amoebic Gill Disease
- C7 Metazoan Diseases
o C7.1 Monogeneans (General)
o C7.2 Capsalid Monogeneans
o C7.3 Dactylogyrid Monogeneans
o C7.4 Gyrodactylid Monogeneans
o C7.5 Monocotylid Monogeneans
o C7.6 Microbothriid Monogeneans
o C7.7 Polyopisthocotyle Monogeneans
o C7.8 Digenes (Excluding Blood Flukes)
o C7.9 Digenes (Blood Flukes)
o C7.10 Turbellaria
o C7.11 Cestodes
o C7.12 Leeches
o C7.13 Ascarid Nematodes
o C7.14 Camallanid Nematodes
o C7.15 Philometrid Nematodes
o C7.16 Anguillicolid Nematodes
o C7.17 Trichosomonoidid Nematodes
o C7.18 Pentastomids
o C7.19 Acanthocephalans
o C7.20 Copepods
o C7.21 Isopods
o C7.22 Branchiurans
- C8 Myxozoan and Coccidial Diseases
o C8.1 Myxozoan (General)
o C8.2 Enteromyxum spp.
o C8.3 Henneguya spp.
o C8.4 Myxobolus spp.
o C8.5 Ceratonova and Ceratomyxa spp.
o C8.6 Hoferellus spp.
o C8.7 Kudoa spp.
o C8.8 Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae
o C8.9 Eimeria spp.
o C8.10 Cryptosporidium spp.
-
Appendices
o Appendix 1 – Conversions
o Appendix 2 – Common Disinfectants
o Appendix 3 – Fish Diagnostic Laboratories in the USA, by state
o Appendix 4 – Veterinary Training Programs in Aquatic Animal Medicine
CV Autore/i
Catherine Hadfield, MA, VetMB, MRCVS, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management), is the Senior Veterinarian at the Seattle Aquarium in Seattle, Washington, USA.
 
Leigh Clayton, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice and Amphibian and Reptile Practice), eMBA, is the Vice President of Animal Care at the New England Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
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