Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine
MILLER-CALLE-LAMBERSKI
Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine
10th ed., 810 pages, 250 ill., Elsevier, October 2022
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Get the latest advances in zoo and wild animal medicine in one invaluable reference! Written by internationally recognized experts, Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, Volume 10 provides a practical guide to the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals. For each animal, coverage includes topics such as biology, anatomy and special physiology, reproduction, restraint and handling, housing requirements, nutrition and feeding, surgery and anesthesia, diagnostics, and treatment protocols. New topics in this edition include holistic treatments, antibiotic resistance in aquariums, non-invasive imaging for amphibians, emerging reptile viruses, and African ground hornbill medicine, in addition to giant anteater medicine, Brucella in marine animals, and rhinoceros birth parameters. With coverage of many subjects where information has not been readily available, Fowler’s is a resource you don’t want to be without.
 
Key Features
  • Fowler's Current Therapy format ensures that each volume in the series covers all-new topics with timely information on current topics of interest in the field.
  • Focused coverage offers just the right amount of depth — often fewer than 10 pages in a chapter — which makes the material easier to access and easier to understand.
  • General taxon-based format covers all terrestrial vertebrate taxa plus selected topics on aquatic and invertebrate taxa.
  • Updated information from the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) includes records from their growing database for 2.3 million animals (374,000 living) and 23,000 taxa, which can serve as a basis for new research.
  • Expert, global contributors include authors from the U.S. and 25 other countries, each representing trends in their part of the world, and each focusing on the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals.

Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Table of Contents
Section 1 Veterinary Professional Activities
Chapter 1 Leadership in a Time of Crisis
Abstract
Preparing Yourself to Lead Through a Crisis
Principles of Leadership During a Crisis
Prospects After a Crisis
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 2 Promoting Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Zoo and Wildlife Veterinary Medicine
Abstract
Introduction
Understanding the Lack of Diversity in Veterinary Medicine
Hurdles to Veterinary Diversity
Removing Hurdles and Investing in Potential Within Organizations
Tangible and Actionable Steps That an Individual Veterinarian May Take
Conclusion
References
Chapter 3 Building Partnerships Between Regional Veterinary and Zoo Associations
Abstract
Introduction
Introducing the Two Organizations
History of the Collaboration
Ingredients of Success
Where Now?—Looking Forward
Conclusions
References
Chapter 4 AAZV Wild Animal Health Fund
Abstract
A Little History About Zoo Animal Medicine
The Birth of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
The Beginning of Funding Zoo and Wildlife Research
The Founding of the Wild Animal Health Fund
Research Grant Committee
The Future
References
Chapter 5 Latin American Zoo Veterinarian Associations
Abstract
Introduction: History of Veterinary Associations in the World. Why Is It Important?
ZOO AND WILDLIFE VETERINARY ASSOCIATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA
Instituto Mexicano de Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Compañía (Mexican Institute of Wild and Companion Animals)
Asociación Mexicana de Médicos Veterinarios Especializados en Animales de Zoológico, Exóticos y Silvestres (Mexican Association of Zoo, Exotic Pets, and Wildlife Veterinarians)
ABRAVAS (Associação Brasileira de Veterinários de Animais Selvagens or Brazilian Association of Wild Animal Veterinarians)
Asociación Latinoamericana de Veterinarios de Fauna Silvestre (Latin American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians)
Latin American Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 6 Training Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians in Southeast Asia
Abstract
Introduction
Internships/Externships
Continuing Professional Development and Lifelong Learning
Conferences/Seminars/Specialization
Conclusion/Future Implications
References
Chapter 7 Harnessing Standardized Data and Analytics to Advance Zoological Medicine
Abstract
Introduction
Husbandry Resources in Zoological Information Management System
Medical Resources in Zoological Information Management System
Conclusion
References
Section 2 Conservation
Chapter 8 Wildlife Regulations that Affect Veterinarians in the United States
Abstract
The North American Model
Wildlife Conservation Oversight
Animal Welfare and Research
Use of Pharmaceuticals in Wildlife
Conclusions
References
Chapter 9 Management of Diseases in Free-ranging Wildlife Populations
Abstract
Introduction
Why Manage Diseases in Wild Populations?
North American Wildlife Management Model
Management Techniques and Prevention and Control Intervention Points
Manipulation of the Environment
Manipulation of the Host
Immunization of the Host
Manipulation of the Agent or Vector
Modification of Human Behavior
New Directions
References
Chapter 10 Remote Management of Veterinary Field Programs
Abstract
Importance of Field Conservation Programs Supported by Zoological Institutions
How Veterinary Involvement in Field Programs Can Provide Value
How to Determine Appropriate Veterinary Involvement in Field Programs
Challenges Frequently Encountered With Conservation Programs
Practical Tips for Successful Veterinary Involvement in Field Programs
Opportunities and Benefits of Veterinary Involvement in Field Programs
References
Chapter 11 Gorilla Doctors: A One Health/Conservation Medicine Success Story
Abstract
Introduction and History
Gorilla Health Care
One Health/Conservation Medicine
Conclusion and Future Work
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
References
Chapter 12 Rabies Control in the Developing World—The Ethiopia Model and How it Affects Wildlife
Abstract
Introduction to Ethiopia and Zoonotic Disease Context
Rabies Burden in the World—The Global Perspective
Epidemiology of Rabies in Ethiopian Wildlife
Control of Rabies in Ethiopian Wildlife
Rabies in Domestic Animals
A Global One Health Effort
Conclusion
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
References
Section 3 One Health
Chapter 13 Zoos as One Health Education Centers for Students in the Human Health Professions
Abstract
Introduction
One Health Training Programs at Zoological Institutions
Conclusions
References
Chapter 14 A One Health Initiative in Borneo Saving Orangutans, Transforming Community Health and Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods
Abstract
A One Health Proof of Concept
References
Chapter 15 Auckland Zoo: Applying One Health in New Zealand
Abstract
Introduction
Education and Being Ambassadors
Providing Health Care for Zoo and Wildlife to Ensure Sustainability of Biodiversity
Conducting Studies on Diseases of Conservation Concern
Understanding Disease in Zoo Wildlife as Sentinels for Emerging Diseases of Humans and Animals
Surveillance of Disease in Wild Animals at the Interface of Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans
Contributing to the Field of Comparative Medicine and the Discovery of All Life Forms
References
Chapter 16 Infectious Diseases and Primate Trafficking in Peruvian Wet Markets
Abstract
Primate Trafficking
The Dilemma of Primate Confiscations
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 17 SARS-CoV-2 and the Trade in Wildlife for Human Consumption
Abstract
Background
SARS-CoV-2 a Zoonotic-Origin Pathogen
The Wildlife Trade for Consumption
Policy Options and Trade Bans
Conclusions
References
Chapter 21 SARS-Cov-2 Coronavirus Infection in Wild Animals
Abstract
Hosts Range, Clinical Signs, and Transmission
Transmission Routes and Clinical Signs in Animals
Spillover, Zoonotic Abilities, and Variants
Diagnostic
Indirect
Treatment
Antimicrobials
Antiviral
Monoclonal Antibody
Prevention
Vaccination
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 19 Antibiotic Resistance in Free-ranging Wildlife
Abstract
Introduction
General Trends of Occurrence of Antimicrobial-resistant Bacteria Among Wildlife
Importance of Antimicrobial-resistant Bacteria in Wildlife to Human Health and Wildlife Conservation
Priority Areas for Future Research and Monitoring
Disclaimer
References
Chapter 20 Tick and Vector-borne Disease Expansion with Climate Change
Abstract
Vector-borne Disease Emergence
Effects of Climate Change on Vector Ecology
Avian Malaria and Culex quinquefasciatus
Babesiosis in Canadian Cervids
Tsetse-transmitted Trypanosomiasis in African Wildlife
Zoos as Sentinels for Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases in a Changing Climate
Conclusions
References
Chapter 21 Impacts from Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Wildlife Health—A One Health Challenge
Abstract
Introduction and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals as Another One Health Issue
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Environment
Human Impacts
Nonhuman Animal Impacts
Conclusions
References
Section 4 Infectious, Parasitic, and Emerging Diseases
Chapter 22 Update on Avian Influenza Virus
Abstract
Introduction
Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza in Wildlife
Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Zoos
Routes of Transmission
Conclusions
References
Chapter 23 Update on Viruses in Bats
Abstract
Introduction
Emerging Viral Zoonoses Carried by Bats
Henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra Virus)
Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg Virus)
Discussion
References
Chapter 24 Canine Distemper in Noncarnivore Species
Abstract
Introduction
Primates
Xenarthra
Pholidota
Rodentia
Tayassuidae
Proboscidea
Conclusion
References
Chapter 25 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Viral Disease and its Effects on Wildlife
Abstract
Background (Etiology, Origin, and Geographic Spread)
Species Susceptibility and Transmission Dynamics
Clinical Disease Manifestation and Diagnosis
Control and Prevention
Impacts to Wildlife and Ecosystems
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 26 Yellow Fever in South American Primates
Abstract
Introduction
Clinical Aspects
Histopathological Findings
Sample Collection
Diagnostics
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 27 Noninvasive Monitoring of Herpes Viruses
Abstract
Herpesviruses
Noninvasive Sampling
Virus Detection
Conclusions
References
Chapter 53 Ecosystem and Multiple Species Effects of Tuberculosis in Kruger National Park
Abstract
Overview of Kruger National Park Ecosystem
History of Bovine Tuberculosis in Kruger National Park
Species Affected by Bovine Tuberculosis
Species-Specific Effects of Tuberculosis in Kruger National Park
Effects of Bovine Tuberculosis in Other Mammals
Effects of Bovine Tuberculosis at Interfaces
References
Chapter 29 Overview of Clostridium perfringens in Zoo Animals
Abstract
Introduction
Microbiology and Pathogenicity
Epidemiology
Clinical Diseases and Lesions in Zoo Animals
Diagnosis
Prophylaxis and Management
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 55 Prevention of Baylisascariasis in Zoo Animals
Abstract
Review of Baylisascariasis
Prevention Strategies
Depopulation of Raccoons
Deworming Raccoons
Exclusion of Raccoons From Collection Animal Areas
Prophylaxis for Collection Animals
Non-Raccoon Species and Baylisascaris
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Section 5 Zoo Health Management
Chapter 31 Children’s Zoo Medicine and Management
Abstract
Introduction
Preventive Medicine
New and Emerging Diseases
Animal Drug Use Regulation Considerations
References
Chapter 32 The Zoo Veterinarian’s Role in Striving for Sustainable Populations
Abstract
Introduction
Population Sustainability: A Primer
Looking Forward From Past Practices
Achieving Healthy Mixed-species Populations With Positive Affective States
Reproducing the Natural World
Reproduction and Contraception
Finding Spaces for Sustainable Populations
Bringing It All Together for Healthy and Sustainable Populations
Online Resources:
References
Chapter 33 Exhibit Biodiversity and Animal Health
Abstract
Biodiversity Definition
Assessment of Existing Biodiversity
Measures to Increase Biodiversity
Do Good and Talk About it
Biodiversity and Animal Health Aspects
Veterinary Activities Related to Biodiversity in Zoos
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 25 Air Quality and Zoo Health Management
Abstract
Introduction
Air Quality Parameters—Particulate Matter
Natural Sources of Particulates
Anthropogenic Air Particulate Pollution
Cleaning Techniques: Pressure Washers and Blowers
Irrigation Particulates
Shade Cloth
Indoor and Facility Air Quality Parameters
HVAC Components and Contamination Exposure
Noxious Gases and Air Quality
Species of Increased Concern
Monitoring Particulates
Products Mentioned
References
Chapter 35 Industry Snapshot: Seafood Sustainability in Animal Diets
Abstract
Methodology
Findings
Industry Snapshot
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 36 Browse Selection and Management
Abstract
What Is Browse?
Which Animals Will Receive Browse?
What Browse to Use?
Where to Source Browse?
How Much Browse?
Acknowledgments
References
Section 6 Animal Welfare
Chapter 37 Zoo Animal Welfare in the 21st Century—Contemporary Thinking, Assessment, and Best Practice
Abstract
Introduction
Recognizing Good Animal Welfare
The Five Domains—a Contemporary Model to Assess Welfare
Monitoring and Assessment of Zoo Animal Welfare
Monitoring and Assessment Tools for Zoo Animal Welfare
Quality Assurance and Accreditation Systems for Zoo Welfare
References
Chapter 38 Veterinarians and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Guidelines
Abstract
Introduction
The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Accreditation Standards
The “Welfare Considerations” of All Association of Zoos and Aquariums Accreditation Standards
The “Welfare Specific” Standards
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 39 Concepts of Animal Welfare in Natural Habitats and in Zoos: Meaning and Anxiety
Abstract
Introduction
Freedom and Captivity Are Not Opposites
“Freedom of Anxiety” and a “Meaningful Life” Represent No Tradeoff
Providing Meaning
Beyond the Five Freedoms Toward Choices That Matter
The Value of Conserving “The Wild”
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
Chapter 40 Allostatic Load as a Measure of Animal Stress and Health Risk
Abstract
Introduction
What is Allostatic Load?
Allostatic Load as the Pathway Between Stressor and Disease
Estimating Allostatic Load
How Allostatic Load Advances Animal Physiology
Applying Allostatic Load to Wildlife in Human Care
Conclusion
References
Chapter 41 Stereotypic Behaviors in Managed Care
Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomic Examples of Stereotypic Behaviors
Source of Stereotypic Behaviors in Managed Care
Prevention and Treatment of Stereotypic Behaviors
References
Chapter 42 Welfare in Aquatic Invertebrates
Abstract
Animal Welfare
Welfare Assessments
Welfare Assessment Reviews
Special Topics
Opportunities
References
Chapter 43 Animal Welfare and Birds
Abstract
Introduction
Welfare Oversight in Zoos
Major Factors Influencing Welfare in Zoo-Housed Birds
Enclosures
Social Groupings
Environmental Enrichment
Human-Animal Interaction
Species Selection
Nutrition
Flight Restriction
Health Status
Animal Welfare Assessment in Birds in Zoos
Tools to Aid in the Assessment of Avian Welfare
Future Directions to Improve Avian Welfare in Zoos
Acknowledgment
References
Section 7 Diagnostics and Therapeutics
Chapter 44 Selection of a Portable Computed Tomography Unit
Abstract
Introduction
Differences Between Traditional and Portable Computer Tomography
Considerations When Selecting a Computed Tomography Unit
How to Determine If a Computed Tomography Unit Is a Good Fit for Your Hospital
Institutional Investments
Benefits
Potential to Improve Animal Welfare
References
Chapter 45 Urine as a Monitor of Large Carnivore Health
Abstract
Introduction
Albumin
Amylase
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Glucose
Alkaline Phosphatase
Calcium and Phosphorus
Bilirubin
Potassium
References
Chapter 46 Footcare for Zoo Ungulates (Zoo Hoofstock Trim Program)
Abstract
Introduction
Foot Function and Anatomy
Wild Foot Studies
Preventive Management
Identifying and Correcting Foot Disease
Lameness Diagnosis and Management
Therapeutic Footwear
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 47 Physical Therapy in Zoological Species
Abstract
Purpose of Physical Therapy
Visual Assessment
Physical Assessment
Manual Techniques
Exercise
Modalities
Physical Therapy in Zoological Species
References
Chapter 48 Integrative Medicine in Zoological Species
Abstract
Introduction and Applications for Integrative Medicine
Summary
References
Chapter 49 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Zoo and Wildlife Across Taxa
Abstract
Success of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Team Preparedness
Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Arrest
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Algorithm
Patient Monitoring
Length of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Postcardiac Arrest
Taxa Specific Recommendations
Zoo and Wildlife Specific Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Considerations
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 50 Blood Transfusions in Zoological Medicine
Abstract
Introduction
Indications
Which Blood Products to Employ and How to Store Them
Compatibility
In Practice
Transfusion Reactions
Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Section 8 Anesthesia
Chapter 51 Anesthesia Monitoring—Understanding Supply and Demand
Abstract
Introduction
Monitoring the Respiratory System
Cardiovascular Monitoring
Blood Gas and Lactate Monitoring
Emerging Technology for Supply and Demand Monitoring
Conclusions
References
Chapter 52 Newer Anesthetic Combinations Including Local Anesthesia
Abstract
Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine Combinations
Nalbuphine-Azaperone-Medetomidine Combinations
Butorphanol-Medetomidine-Midazolam Combinations
Ketamine-Butorphanol-Medetomidine Combinations
Medetomidine and Vatinoxan
Alfaxalone Combinations
Local Anesthesia in Wild Animals
References
Chapter 53 The Selection of Anesthetic Combinations
Abstract
The Selection of Drug Combinations
Interactions Between Drugs
Reducing Side Effects by Using Drugs in Combination
Species Considerations
Patient-Specific Considerations
Procedural Considerations
Safety Considerations
Reversal of Drug Combinations
Drug Availability and Practicality
Conclusion
References
Chapter 54 Capture Mortality and Impacts
Abstract
Introduction
Adverse Events
Mortalities
Necropsy
Long-Term Impacts
Nontarget Species Impacts
Monitoring Programs
Iterative Refinement of Outcomes
Conclusions
References
Section 9 Invertebrates
Chapter 55 Coral Diseases
Abstract
Coral Disease Research
Coral Health Assessment
Main Diseases of Coral
Bacterial and Cyanobacterial Diseases
Fungal Diseases
Diseases Related With Parasites and Protists
Viral Diseases
Diagnostics
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 56 Honey Bees
Abstract
Introduction
Diseases of Honey Bee Brood
Treatment
Preventive Strategies
Diagnosis
Treatment
References
Chapter 57 Partula Snail Medicine
Abstract
General Biology
Special Housing Requirements
Feeding
Handling
Euthanasia and Necropsy
Diseases
Future Directions
Conservation Efforts
Acknowledgments
References
Section 10 Aquatics
Chapter 58 Fish Medicine Updates
Abstract
Megalocytivirus
Betanodavirus
Picornaviruses
Tilapia Lake Virus
Erysipelothrix Species
Fusasporis stethaprioni
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 59 Antibiotic Resistance in Public Aquariums
Abstract
Introduction
Resistance Mechanisms
Multidrug Resistance Organisms
Testing
Antimicrobial Stewardship
Public Aquarium Antimicrobial Resistance Cycle
Conclusion
References
Chapter 60 Harmful Algal Blooms
Abstract
Introduction to Harmful Algal Blooms
Causes of Harmful Algal Blooms
Contamination of Dietary Supplements
Specific Toxins Associated With Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms
Microcystins and Nodularins
Anatoxins
Saxitoxins
Cylindrospermopsin
Debromoaplysiatoxin
Other Environmental Impacts Associated With Harmful Algal Blooms
Treatment of Animals Exposed to Harmful Algal Blooms
Prevention of Animal Exposures to Harmful Algal Blooms
Conclusion
References
Section 11 Amphibians
Chapter 61 Update on Amphibian Chytrid Fungus
Abstract
New Pathogen
Transmission and Reservoirs
Host Factors
Environmental Factors
Diagnosis
Treatment
Disease Prevention and Management
Conclusions
References
Chapter 62 Medical Aspects of Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog Reintroduction
Abstract
Background and Conservation Threats
Life Cycle
Transport and Captive Husbandry
Chytridiomycosis
Conditions Related to Husbandry
Parasites
Cloacal Prolapses
Future Directions
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 63 Noninvasive Imaging Techniques in Amphibian Medicine—Access
Abstract
Introduction
Radiography
Ultrasonography and Elastography
Computed Tomography and X-ray Microtomography
Microscopic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Microscopic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography
Acknowledgment
References
Section 12 Reptiles
Chapter 64 Snake Implants Techniques and Safety
Abstract
Introduction
Transmitter Selection and Presurgical Considerations
Surgical Procedure
Celiotomy
Replacement or Removal of Transmitters
Postoperative Recovery
Snake Radio Transmitter Morbidity and Study Concerns
References
Chapter 65 Emerging Infectious Diseases of Reptiles
Abstract
Introduction
Respiratory Disease in Snakes
Nidovirus Infections in Other Reptiles
Neurological Disease in Snakes
Respiratory Disease in Chelonians
Emerging Mycoses
Conclusions
References
Chapter 66 New Methods of Reptile Health Assessment
Abstract
Introduction and Recent Advances
Modeling Health
Conclusion
References
Chapter 67 Veterinary Management of European Pond Turtle Reintroductions
Abstract
Introduction and History of the Project
Captive Conservation Facilities
Incubation and Hatching
Veterinary Follow-Up
Managing Populations
Released Population
Reintroduction Follow Up
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Section 13 Avian
Chapter 68 Causes of Death in Toucans
Abstract
Introduction
Bacterial Diseases
Fungal Diseases
Parasitic Diseases
Viral Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
Other Causes of Death
Immunosuppression
References
Chapter 69 Pelican Health
Abstract
Introduction
Unique Anatomy
Feeding and Nutrition
Housing
Restraint and Handling
Diagnostics
Traumatic Injury
Toxin Exposure
Neoplasia
Bacterial and Fungal Diseases
Viral Diseases
Parasitic Infection
Surgery/Anesthesia
Reproduction
References
Chapter 71 Ground-hornbill Medicine
Abstract
Introduction
Handling
Infectious Diseases
Noninfectious Diseases
Diseases Associated With Incubation and Hand Rearing
Reproduction
Diagnostic Imaging
Environmental Contaminants
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 71 Tropical Avian Diseases
Abstract
Introduction
Noninfectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases
Conclusion
References
Chapter 72 Avian Hatching Assistance
Abstract
Normal Hatching Process
Assisted Hatching Techniques
Internal Pip/No Progress
External Pip With Dry Membranes
External Pip Away From Air Cell
No Progress After Draw Down
Embryo in Normal Position With No Progress
Embryo in Malposition With No External Pip
References
Chapter 73 Egg Necropsies
Abstract
Fertility and Hatchability
Egg Breakout Procedures
Causes of Mortality
References
Chapter 74 Electrocution of Raptors
Abstract
Introduction
Data Analysis
Clinical Management
Discussion
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
References
Chapter 75 Update on the Status of Vultures and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Regulations
Abstract
Vulture Declines in South Asia
Vulture Declines in Southeast Asia
Vulture Declines in Africa
The Status of Vultures in Europe
The Status of Vultures in South Asia
Conservation Breeding
Vulture Surveys
Vulture Safe Zones
Research on the Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs to Vultures
Advocacy for and Regulation of Veterinary Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Surveillance for Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs on Sale and in the Environment
Releases of Vultures
Successes to Date
A Future With Vultures?
References
Chapter 76 Twenty Years of West Nile Virus in North America
Abstract
Background
History and Distribution
Epizootiology and Transmission
Host Susceptibility and Clinical Signs
Pathogenesis and Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment, Prevention, and Management Implications
Summary
References
Chapter 77 Infectious Diseases of Antarctic Penguins—Current and Future Threats
Abstract
Introduction
Historical Infectious Disease Investigations of Antarctic Penguins
A Paradigm Shift for Identifying Viruses of Antarctic Penguins
Methods of Introduction of Pathogens
Drivers of Infectious Disease
Final Thoughts
References
Chapter 78 Philornis downsi and Related Species in Birds
Abstract
Introduction
Systematics and Distribution of Philornis
Life Cycle and Behavior
Hosts
Impacts of Hematophagous Philornis Species in Natural and Invaded Habitats
Diagnostics
Techniques for Controlling Philornis Species
Short-term measures
Long-term Measures
Ex situ Protection: Captive Rearing/Breeding
Increasing Resilience of Nesting Birds
Acknowledgment
Reference
Chapter 79 Medical Aspects of Translocation of Pink Pigeons to Mauritius
Abstract
Introduction and History of the Pink Pigeon
Considerations for Translocation of Pink Pigeons
Disease Risk Analysis
Step 3: Risk Assessment
Step 4: Risk Management
Proposed Preexport Protocol for Export of EAZA Ex situ Programme Birds to Mauritius
Limitations and Final Considerations
Acknowledgments
References
Section 14 Marine Mammals
Chapter 80 Dugong Medicine
Abstract
Introduction
Clinically Important Anatomy
Captive Husbandry
Rescue, Transport, and Rehabilitation
Restraint, Sedation, Anesthesia, and Euthanasia
Illness and Injury
Hand-Rearing
Clinical Pathology
Reproduction
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 81 Oral Health in Marine Mammals
Abstract
Dentition
Dental Examination—Practicalities
Dental Disease in Odontocetes
Dental Disease in Pinnipeds
Soft Tissue Conditions
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 82 Dolphin Nephrolithiasis
Abstract
Introduction
Anatomical Considerations
Prevalence
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Diagnosis of Nephrolithiasis
Diagnosing a Stone Obstruction
Treatment Options for Stone Obstruction
Diet Optimization
Management and Prevention
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 83 Marine Brucellosis
Abstract
Introduction
Marine Host
Transmission
Pathology of Brucellosis in Marine Mammals
Molecular Characterization of Marine Brucella
Marine Brucellosis as a Zoonosis
Limitation to Study Stranded Animals With Marine Brucellosis
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 84 What can be Learned from Marine Mammal Strandings?
Abstract
Introduction
Stranded Small Cetaceans
Stranded Large Whales
References
Chapter 85 Large Whale Euthanasia and Necropsy
Abstract
Introduction
Euthanasia
Necropsy
References
Section 15 Ungulates
Chapter 86 Free-Ranging Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) Health: Immobilization, Sample Collection, and Disease Survey
Abstract
The Marsh Deer
Geographic Distribution and Habitat
Mortality Events
Immobilization
Sampling
Postmortem Sampling
Biohazard During Wildlife Mortality Events
Diseases Reported in Wild Marsh Deer
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 87 Prion Disease in Cervid Species
Abstract
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs and Disease Course
Diagnosis
Treatment, Control, and Prevention
References
Chapter 88 Parturition in Rhinoceros
Abstract
Fetal Morphometry
Clinical Signs of Parturition
Estrogen Increase and Progesterone Decrease Prior to Parturition
Parturition
Labor Stage II
Labor Stage III
Perinatal Period
Dystocia and Perinatal Complications
References
Chapter 89 White Rhino Diet-Induced Infertility
Abstract
Historical Background
Potential Explanations
Dietary Phytoestrogens
Role of the Microbiome
Considerations for Other Species
Concluding Remarks
References
Chapter 90 Browsing Rhinoceros and Iron Storage Disease—An Update
Abstract
The Role of Iron and Iron Homeostasis
Iron Overload—Causes, Findings, and Significance
Iron Overload and Oxidative Stress
Iron Overload and Infection
Dietary Iron
Diagnosis of Overload
Treatment of Overload
References
Section 16 Elephants
Chapter 91 Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Update
Abstract
New Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Cases in African Elephants
Capacity Building
Therapy
Preparedness
Monitoring Program
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Behavioral/Clinical Observations
Prevalence
Serology
Future Directions
Sequencing
References
Chapter 92 Use of Corrective Shoes in Elephants
Abstract
Introduction
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 93 Uroliths in Elephants
Abstract
Introduction
Etiology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Postoperative Care
Prevention
Conclusion
References
Chapter 94 Artificial Insemination in Elephants
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Hormone Profiles
Semen Collection
Semen Cryopreservation
Artificial Insemination
Pregnancy Monitoring
Birth Management
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 95 Vital Signs and Parameters in Newborn Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)
Abstract
References
Section 17 Primates
Chapter 96 Intravenous Anesthesia in Great Apes
Abstract
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 97 Voluntary Medical Procedures in Great Apes
Abstract
Introduction
Risk Assessment
Physical Examination
Diagnostic Sample Collection
Treatments
Radiographs
Abdominal Ultrasound
Pregnancy Diagnosis and Monitoring
Echocardiography
Blood Pressure Measurement
Electrocardiography
Conclusion
References
Chapter 98 Chimpanzee Mortality Review: 25 Years
Abstract
Mortality Classification and Analysis
Mortality Trends by Age Class
Mortality Trends by Etiology
Conclusions
References
Chapter 99 Orangutan Respiratory Disease Syndrome
Abstract
Introduction/Definition
Cystic Fibrosis as the Model
Orangutan Respiratory Disease Syndrome Diagnosis
Orangutan Respiratory Disease Syndrome Clinical Management
ORDS/Chronic/Airway Disease Present
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Section 18 Small Mammals
Chapter 100 Echidna Nutrition
Abstract
Introduction
Natural Diet
Comparative Digestive Physiology
Zoo Diets
Energy
Fat
Protein
Carbohydrate
Minerals
Vitamins
Transfaunation
Body Condition Scoring
Fecal Consistency Scoring
Summary
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 101 Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (Lumpy Jaw)
Abstract
Introduction
Microbiology
Pathogenesis and Epidemiology
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 102 Medicine/Triage of Pangolin Confiscations
Abstract
Introduction
Prior to Confiscations
Triage Levels
Commonly Seen Syndromes
Trauma
Gastroenteritis
Starvation
Ocular Abnormalities
Skin Conditions
Generalized Bacterial Infections
Parasitism
Postconfiscation Handling and Treatment
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 103 Medicine of Giant Armadillos (Priodontes maximus)
Abstract
Biology and Conservation
Anatomy
Husbandry
Nutrition
Reproduction
Capture Methods and Physical Restraint
Anesthesia
Surgery
Clinical Pathology
Diseases
Zoonotic Parasites
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 104 Veterinary Management ofEuropean Hedgehogs
Abstract
Taxonomy and Natural History
Unique Anatomy and Its Clinical Relevance
Physical Examination With or Without Anesthesia
Hedgehogs in the Emergency Room
Anesthesia
Noninfectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases
References
Section 19 Carnivores
Chapter 105 Veterinary Medicine in the Rehab of “Dancing” Bears in India
Abstract
Wild Sloth Bear Taxonomy and Distribution
Wildlife SOS and Captive Sloth Bear Population in India
Quarantine Protocol
Restraint and Handling
Chemical Immobilization
Blood Sampling and Parenteral Medication
Nutrition and Veterinary Care
Immunization
Reproductive Parameters
Embryonic Diapause (Delayed Implantation) and Gestation
Common Diseases Affecting Rescued Dancing Sloth Bears
Viral Diseases
Necropsy Lesions and Control
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Treatment and Control
Rotaviral Enteritis
Bacterial Diseases
Diagnosis and Treatment
Prophylactic/Therapeutic Approach
Leptospirosis
Fungal Disease
Pancreatitis
Chronic Kidney Disease
Urinalysis
Neoplasms
Adenocarcinoma and Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma
Benign Tumors
Parasitic Infestation
Musculoskeletal and other Disorders
Medicine
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 106 Morbidity and Mortality of Asiatic Black Bears (Ursus thibetanus) Associated with Bile Farming
Abstract
Introduction to Bile-Farming Traditions in Southeast Asia and China
Bear Bile Farm Husbandry and Diet
Selected Diagnostics for Hepatobiliary Disease
Selected Diseases of Bile-Farmed Bears
Renal Disease
Cardiovascular Disease
Ocular Disease
Behavioral Abnormalities and Chronic Stress
Dental Disease
Mobility Problems
References
Chapter 107 Using In Situ/Ex Situ Research Collaborations to Support Polar Bear Conservation
Abstract
Introduction
Health
Physiology
Energetics
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 108 Semen Banking of Wild Felids for Zoo Vets
Abstract
Introduction
Urethral Catheterization for Semen Recovery
Semen Cryopreservation
Acknowledgments
References
Chapter 109 Advantages and Challenges of Carcass Feeding Strategies of Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Human Care
Abstract
Unique Anatomy
Diseases in Cheetahs, Gastritis
Cheetah Feeding Habits
Diets and Feeding Strategies of Cheetahs Under Human Care
Considerations to Take When Providing Carcass Feeding
Conclusions
References
Chapter 110 Cheetah Liver Disease: A Diagnosis and Treatment Update
Abstract
Introduction
Diagnosis
Imaging
Treatment
Acknowledgments
References
Index

Eric Miller
Affiliations and Expertise
Director Emeritus, Saint Louis Zoo WildCare Institute Senior Counsel, Zoo Advisors 146 Schupp Lane Union, MO 63084 United States
 
Paul Calle
Affiliations and Expertise
WCS Vice President for Health Programs Chief Veterinarian Director, Zoological Health Program Wildlife Conservation Society 2300 Southern Blvd. Bronx, NY 10460-1099 United States
 
Nadine Lamberski
Affiliations and Expertise
Chief Animal Health Officer San Diego Zoo Global 15500 San Pasqual Valley Road Escondido, CA 92027-7017 United States

Item Code: ANESO395
ISBN: 9780323828529
Weigth: 2000 g
Species: Exotic animals
Discipline: Internal medicine
VAT: VAT Exempt