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Necropsy guide for dogs, cats, and small mammals
McDONOUGH-SOUTHARD
Necropsy guide for dogs, cats, and small mammals
1st ed., 200 pages, 350 ill., John Wiley & Sons, January 2017

Item Code: ANPAT19
ISBN: 9781119115656
Weigth: 200 g
Species: All species
Discipline: Pathology
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Description
Necropsy Guide for Dogs, Cats, and Small Mammals is a complete, practical resource for performing necropsies on dogs, cats, rabbits, rodents, and ferrets in the veterinary clinic, animal shelter, research laboratory, or in the field.
  • Provides practical guidance on all aspects of performing an necropsy on dogs, cats, and small mammals and interpreting the results
  • Presents more than 200 full-color images to demonstrate techniques and findings
  • Offers step-by-step instructions for the necropsy process and collecting samples
  • Includes an anatomy review, discussion of dissection techniques, and list of common artifacts and post-mortem changes for each organ system
  • Supports veterinarians in performing a necropsy in any setting, including animal shelters, veterinary clinics, research laboratories, and in the field
Contents
List of Contributors xv
Foreword xvii
Acknowledgments xix
About the Companion Website xxi
Part I Necropsy Fundamentals 1
1 Introduction to the Necropsy 3
Sean P. McDonough and Teresa Southard
1.1 What is a Necropsy? 3
1.2 Why do a Necropsy? 3
1.3 What Information Can and Cannot Be Gained from a Necropsy 3
1.4 When to Refer a Necropsy 4
2 Necropsy Basics 9
Sean P. McDonough and Teresa Southard
2.1 Necropsy Facilities 9
2.2 Necropsy Equipment 9
2.3 Safety Considerations 13
2.3.1 Cuts and Punctures 14
2.3.2 Zoonotic Disease 14
2.3.3 Formalin 15
2.4 The Importance of a Good History 15
2.5 The Necropsy Report 15
2.5.1 Gross Description 15
2.5.2 Gross Findings 16
2.5.3 Gross Diagnosis 16
2.5.4 Comment 16
2.6 Postmortem Changes 16
3 The Necropsy Procedure 21
Sean P. McDonough and Teresa Southard
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Weigh the Body 21
3.3 External Examination 21
3.4 Reflect the Skin and Right Limbs 22
3.5 Open the Abdominal Cavity 26
3.6 Puncture the Diaphragm 27
3.7 Open the Thoracic Cavity 27
3.8 Open the Pericardium 28
3.9 In Situ Examination of Organs 29
3.10 Remove the Adrenal Glands 30
3.11 Remove the Pluck 30
3.12 Remove the Gastrointestinal Tract, Liver, and Spleen 32
3.13 Remove the Urogenital Organs 34
3.14 Remove the Head 35
3.15 Take Out the Eyes 35
3.16 Remove the Brain 36
3.17 Remove the Pituitary Gland 37
Bibliography 37
Part II Organ Systems 39
4 The Integumentary System 41
Jeanine Peters-Kennedy
4.1 Anatomy Review 41
4.1.1 External Ear Canal Anatomy 42
4.2 In Situ Examination and Removal 42
4.2.1 Primary Lesions 42
4.2.2 Lesions that May Be Primary or Secondary 43
4.2.3 Secondary Skin Lesions 43
4.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 44
4.3.1 Cytology 44
4.3.2 Skin Scrapes 44
4.3.3 Hair Examination (Trichogram) 44
4.3.4 Examination of the External Ear Canal 44
4.3.5 Sampling the Skin 45
4.4 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 46
Bibliography 46
5 The Musculoskeletal System 49
Teresa Southard
5.1 Anatomy Review 49
5.1.1 Bones and Joints 49
5.1.2 Teeth 51
5.1.3 Skeletal Muscle 52
5.2 In Situ Evaluation, Sectioning, and Fixation 52
5.2.1 Bones 52
5.2.2 Joints, Tendons, and Ligaments 54
5.2.3 Skeletal Muscle 55
5.3 Special Techniques 55
5.3.1 Postmortem Imaging 55
5.3.2 Cleaning Bones 56
5.3.3 India Ink Evaluation of Articular Cartilage 56
5.3.4 Examining the Intervertebral Discs 56
5.3.5 Submitting Muscle for Additional Tests 56
5.4 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 56
Bibliography 57
6 The Cardiovascular System 59
Kathleen M. Kelly
6.1 Anatomy Review 59
6.1.1 Right Heart 59
6.1.2 Left Heart 60
6.1.3 Vessels: Great and Small 60
6.1.4 Contextual Cardiac Embryology and Congenital Heart Malformations 62
6.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 63
6.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 64
6.4 Common Artifacts, Non-lesions, and Postmortem Changes 66
Bibliography 68
7 The Respiratory System 69
Elizabeth L. Buckles and Teresa Southard
7.1 Anatomy Review 69
7.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 71
7.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 72
7.3.1 Larynx and Trachea 72
7.3.2 Lungs 73
7.3.3 Nasal Cavity and Sinuses 74
7.4 Special Techniques 74
7.5 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 75
Bibliography 75
8 The Alimentary System 77
Gerald E. Duhamel
8.1 Anatomy Review 77
8.1.1 The Oropharyngeal Cavity 77
8.1.2 The Salivary Glands 78
8.1.3 The Esophagus 78
8.1.4 The Stomach 79
8.1.5 The Small Intestine 79
8.1.6 The Large Intestine 81
8.1.7 The Intestinal Vasculature and Nervous System 82
8.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 82
8.2.1 The Esophagus 83
8.2.2 The Gastrointestinal Tract 83
8.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 85
8.3.1 Gastrointestinal Tract 85
8.4 Special Techniques 87
8.5 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 88
Bibliography 89
9 The Liver and Pancreas 91
Sean P. McDonough
9.1 Anatomy Review 91
9.1.1 The Liver 91
9.1.2 The Pancreas 93
9.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 94
9.2.1 The Liver 94
9.2.2 The Pancreas 96
9.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 96
9.3.1 The Liver 96
9.3.2 The Pancreas 98
9.4 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 98
9.4.1 The Liver 98
9.4.2 The Pancreas 99
Bibliography 99
10 The Urogenital System 101
Teresa Southard
10.1 Anatomy Review 101
10.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 103
10.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 103
10.3.1 Kidneys 103
10.3.2 Ureters 104
10.3.3 Bladder and Urethra 104
10.3.4 Ovaries 105
10.3.5 Oviduct/Uterus/Cervix/Vagina 105
10.3.6 Testes/Epididymides/Ductus Deferens 105
10.3.7 Prostate Gland 105
10.3.8 Bulbourethral Gland (Cats Only) 106
10.3.9 Distal Colon/Rectum/Anus 106
10.4 Special Techniques 106
10.5 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 106
Bibliography 106
11 The Nervous System 107
Andrew D. Miller
11.1 Anatomy Review 107
11.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 108
11.2.1 Brain 108
11.2.2 Spinal Cord 109
11.2.3 Peripheral Nerves 110
11.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 110
11.3.1 Brain 110
11.3.2 Spinal Cord 112
11.3.3 Nerves 112
11.4 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 112
Bibliography 113
12 The Eye and Ear 115
Sean P. McDonough
12.1 The Eye 115
12.1.1 Anatomy Review 115
12.1.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 115
12.1.3 Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 117
12.2 The Ear 119
12.2.1 Anatomy Review 119
12.2.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 122
12.2.3 Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 122
Bibliography 123
13 The Endocrine System 125
Sean P. McDonough
13.1 Anatomy Review 125
13.1.1 The Pituitary Gland 125
13.1.2 The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 125
13.1.3 The Endocrine Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) 126
13.1.4 The Adrenal Glands 126
13.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 127
13.2.1 The Pituitary Gland 127
13.2.2 The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 128
13.2.3 The Endocrine Pancreas 129
13.2.4 The Adrenal Glands 130
13.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 130
13.3.1 The Pituitary Gland 130
13.3.2 The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 131
13.3.3 The Endocrine Pancreas 131
13.3.4 The Adrenal Glands 131
13.4 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 132
14 The Lymphoreticular System 133
Sean P. McDonough
14.1 Anatomy Review 133
14.1.1 Thymus 133
14.1.2 Lymph Nodes 133
14.1.3 Spleen 133
14.1.4 Bone Marrow 135
14.2 In Situ Evaluation and Removal 135
14.2.1 Thymus 135
14.2.2 Lymph Nodes 136
14.2.3 Spleen 136
14.2.4 Bone Marrow 138
14.3 Organ Examination, Sectioning, and Fixation 138
14.3.1 Thymus 138
14.3.2 Lymph Nodes 138
14.3.3 Spleen 140
14.3.4 Bone Marrow 140
14.4 Incidental Findings 141
Part III Special Cases 143
15 Small Mammal Necropsies 145
Teresa Southard
15.1 Species Differences 145
15.2 Necropsy Technique 145
Bibliography 151
16 Fetuses and Neonatal Animals 153
Teresa Southard
16.1 Anatomy 153
16.1.1 Placenta 153
16.1.2 Umbilical Cord 153
16.1.3 Fetal Circulation 153
16.2 Necropsy Technique 154
16.3 Common Artifacts and Postmortem Changes 156
Part IV Additional Testing 157
17 Cytology 159
Teresa Southard
17.1 Types of Cytology Preparations 159
17.2 Making a Touch Imprint 159
17.3 Making a Bone Marrow Smear 159
17.4 Other Preparations 160
17.5 Staining 160
17.6 Atlas of Normal Tissues 161
18 Histopathology 165
Sean P. McDonough and Teresa Southard
18.1 Necropsy Samples for Histopathology 165
18.2 Fixation 165
18.3 Practical Guidelines to Optimize Fixation 168
19 Infectious Disease Testing 171
Teresa Southard
19.1 Test Types 171
19.2 Aerobic Culture 171
19.3 Anaerobic Culture 173
19.4 Fungal Culture 173
19.5 Fluorescent Antibody Tests 174
19.6 PCR 174
19.7 ELISA 174
19.8 Virus Isolation 174
19.9 Qualitative Fecal 174
19.10 Immunohistochemistry 174
20 Toxicology Testing 175
Teresa Southard
Bibliography 175
21 Packaging and Shipping Samples 179
Sean P. McDonough
21.1 Packing Samples to Send to the Lab 180
Bibliography 180
Appendix 1: Normal Organ Weights (Percentage Body Weight) 183
Appendix 2: North American Diagnostic Laboratories 187
Appendix 3: Tissue Collection Checklist 193
Appendix 4: Describing Gross Lesions 195
Index 197
Author(s) CV
Sean P. McDonough, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, is an Associate Professor at Cornell University’s College of Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca, New York, USA.
 
Teresa Southard, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, is an Assistant Clinical Professor at Cornell University’s College of Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca, New York, USA.
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